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Since all atoms vibrate proportionally to their absolute temperature, a thermal neutron has the best opportunity to fission U-235 when it is moving at this same vibrational speed. Fission reactors can be divided roughly into two classes, depending on the energy of the neutrons that sustain the fission chain reaction: In principle, fusion power could be produced by nuclear fusion of elements such as the deuterium isotope of hydrogen. Fast neutron offers very low fission cross-section (about 1 barn) towards Uranium-235. Â.  According to UBS AG, the Fukushima I nuclear accidents have cast doubt on whether even an advanced economy like Japan can master nuclear safety. In thorium fuel cycle thorium-232 absorbs a neutron in either a fast or thermal reactor. DOE considered some 18 reactor and non-reactor concepts, in addition to existing facilities, to meet the mission need for a versatile, fast-neutron spectrum testing capability. Eventually, the first artificial nuclear reactor, Chicago Pile-1, was constructed at the University of Chicago, by a team led by Italian physicist Enrico Fermi, in late 1942. They are named fast neutrons to distinguish them from lower-energy thermal neutrons, and high-energy neutrons produced in cosmic showers or accelerators. The enriched result is then converted into uranium dioxide powder, which is pressed and fired into pellet form. These include the SL-1 accident (1961), the Three Mile Island accident (1979), Chernobyl disaster (1986), and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (2011). "We have not had a fast neutron spectrum test facility for decades. If the reactor has sufficient extra reactivity capacity, it can be restarted. ", Backgrounder: Tritium, Radiation Protection Limits, and Drinking Water Standards, The Database on Nuclear Power Reactors â IAEA, Uranium Conference adds discussion of Japan accident. Fast neutrons are produced by nuclear processes: Therefore, substantial cumulative impacts on offsite LLW and MLLW treatment and disposal facilities would not be expected.The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is currently the only disposal option for TRU waste. More than a dozen advanced reactor designs are in various stages of development. After World War II, the U.S. military sought other uses for nuclear reactor technology. Fast neutrons, on the other hand, play a small role in fission but can transform nuclei of uranium 238 into fissile plutonium 239. He filed a patent for his idea of a simple reactor the following year while working at the Admiralty in London. Nuclear reactors are used at nuclear power plants for electricity generation and in nuclear marine propulsion. Fast neutron reactors are âpoised to become mainstreamâ according to the World Nuclear Association (WNA). , This article is about constructed nuclear fission reactors.  The fraction of the reactor's fuel core replaced during refueling is typically one-third, but depends on how long the plant operates between refueling. The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) system is a nuclear reactor design which is currently in development.Classed as a Generation IV reactor, it features a fast-neutron spectrum and closed fuel cycle for efficient conversion of fertile uranium and management of actinides.The reference reactor design is a helium-cooled system operating with an outlet temperature of 850 °C using a direct â¦ The Energy Dept. Please show them your appreciation by leaving a comment, 'liking' this post, or following this Member. This molecule is chemically identical to H2O and so is both colorless and odorless, however the additional neutrons in the hydrogen nuclei cause the tritium to undergo beta decay with a half-life of 12.3 years. Nuclear breeding occurs in fast breeder reactors (FBR), where a portion of fertile material gets converted into fissile materials (and thus produce more fuel). By merely placing cheap unenriched uranium into such a core, the non-fissionable U-238 will be turned into Pu-239, "breeding" fuel. It's also easy to share a link to an article you've liked or an industry resource that you think would be helpful. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has launched a project to build the U.S.' first fast neutron test reactor to test advanced reactor materials. 15 Introduction to Fast Reactor Physics â Fast energy spectrum â¢ Neutron moderation â Impacts of fast energy spectrum â¢ Fission-to-capture, enrichment, etc. Subsequent studies in early 1939 (one of them by SzilÃ¡rd and Fermi) revealed that several neutrons were also released during the fissioning, making available the opportunity for the nuclear chain reaction that SzilÃ¡rd had envisioned six years previously. India is also planning to build fast breeder reactors using the thorium â Uranium-233 fuel cycle. Members of the public are invited to review and comment on a Draft Environmental Impact Statement released by the U.S. Department of EnergyÂ for construction of the Versatile Test Reactor, a proposedÂ new research reactorÂ capable of performing irradiation testing at much higher neutron energy fluxes than what is currently available today. Fast Reactors burn plutonium FNR uses plutonium as its basic fuel, its fission neutrons are faster than U235 and better at maintaining the fission process. Laura Scheele is the Communications Director for the Versatile Test Reactor. By this time, the program had been pressured for a year by U.S. entry into the war.  In practice it is economics that determines the lifetime of nuclear fuel in a reactor. Fast Neutron Reactor Information cost §130,000 upkeep §3,200 per hour ploppable: Nuclear Power Plant: requirement â¢ University with School of Science in the region. While traditional reactors contain moderators to slow down neutrons after theyâre emitted, fast reactors keep their neutrons moving quickly (hence the name). Any fast reactor can in theory be used to breed fuel and burn it. U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower made his famous Atoms for Peace speech to the UN General Assembly on 8 December 1953. Fast neutron reactors (FNR) are smaller and simpler than light water types, they have better fuel performance and can have a longer refueling interval (up to 20 years), but a new safety case needs to be made for them, at least in the west. Controlled nuclear fusion could in principle be used in fusion power plants to produce power without the complexities of handling actinides, but significant scientific and technical obstacles remain.  Nuclear-powered submarine mishaps include the K-19 reactor accident (1961), the K-27 reactor accident (1968), and the K-431 reactor accident (1985). She has worked in the nuclear community for more than twenty years. In these reactors power output can be increased by heating the coolant, which makes it a less dense poison. A boiling water reactor uses, Generation I reactor (early prototypes such as. This is a significant area of controversy as opponents of geologic waste disposal fear that isotopes from stored waste could end up in water supplies or be carried into the environment. This nuclear waste is highly radioactive and its toxicity presents a danger for thousands of years. The first nuclear power plant built for civil purposes was the AM-1 Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant, launched on 27 June 1954 in the Soviet Union. Fast neutron response When neutrons are scattered by the Si or C nucleus, neutron-induced charged-particle reactions, such as 28 Si (n, Î±) 25 Mg, 28 Si (n, p) 28 Al, 12 C (n, Î±) 9 Be, 12 C (n, n â²)3 Î±, and 12 C (n, p) 12B may occur inside the active layer, if the fast neutron energy surpasses the reaction threshold, respectively. These either drive a ship's propellers or turn electrical generators' shafts. The energy released in the fission process generates heat, some of which can be converted into usable energy. As of early 2019, the IAEA reports there are 454 nuclear power reactors and 226 nuclear research reactors in operation around the world.. function Fissile U-235 and non-fissile but fissionable and fertile U-238 are both used in the fission process. After loading into dry shielded casks, the casks are stored on-site in a specially guarded facility in impervious concrete bunkers. From all of this, the answer seems to be "business as usual" for disposal of nuclear waste, i.e. The proposed VTR would be a sodium-cooled, fast-neutron-spectrum test reactor that will enhance and accelerate research. Reaktor Bolshoy Moschnosti Kanalniy (High Power Channel Reactor) (. This is known as a nuclear chain reaction. As of the reporting date for the 2019 Annual Transuranic Waste Inventory Report (ATWIR), 67,400 cubic meters of TRU waste were disposed of at the WIPP facility. They offer the prospect of vastly more efficient use of uranium resources and the ability to burn actinides which are otherwise the â¦ They offer a case study of how radioactive isotopes migrate through the Earth's crust. Most nuclear plants operate at a very low profit margin due to operating overhead, mainly regulatory costs, so operating below 100% power is not economically viable for very long. In other reactors the coolant acts as a poison by absorbing neutrons in the same way that the control rods do. Fast neutron reactors are developed to allow an efficient use of the uranium resource and minimize long-life radioactive waste, thus making nuclear energy more sustainable. Research by the Army and the Air Force never came to fruition; however, the U.S. Navy succeeded when they steamed the USS Nautilus (SSN-571) on nuclear power 17 January 1955. nachhaltigwirtschaften.at. Nuclear breeding does not take place in thermal reactors. In this way, thorium, which is four times more abundant than uranium, can be used to breed U-233 nuclear fuel. Â Despite being measurable, the tritium released by nuclear power plants is minimal. All commercial power reactors are based on nuclear fission. I like your framing of the question on DERs - nice to have or must have. , Generation IV reactors are a set of theoretical nuclear reactor designs currently being researched. Several fusion reactors have been built, but only recently reactors have been able to release more energy than the amount of energy used in the process. Fission also produces iodine-135, which in turn decays (with a half-life of 6.57 hours) to new xenon-135. â Comparison to LWR neutron physics Nuclear Data and Validation â Typical Power Distributions â Anticipated uncertainties â Modern covariance and data adjustment. Pu-239 is a viable fuel and must be accounted for even when a highly enriched uranium fuel is used. This U-239 atom will soon decay into plutonium-239, which is another fuel. This means that 1 refueling, replacing only one-third of the fuel, can keep a nuclear reactor at full power for nearly 2 years. "Gen IV" was named in 2000, by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), for developing new plant types..  Catastrophic scenarios involving terrorist attacks are also conceivable. Barry Brook, Director of Climate Science at The University of Adelaide Environment Institute, discusses the potential impact of fast nuclear reactors. Long before all possible fission has taken place, the reactor is unable to maintain 100%, full output power, and therefore, income for the utility lowers as plant output power lowers. Just as conventional thermal power stations generate electricity by harnessing the thermal energy released from burning fossil fuels, nuclear reactors convert the energy released by controlled nuclear fission into thermal energy for further conversion to mechanical or electrical forms. Nuclear reactors typically employ several methods of neutron control to adjust the reactor's power output. Control rods are made of neutron poisons and therefore absorb neutrons. , The amounts of strontium-90 released from nuclear power plants under normal operations is so low as to be undetectable above natural background radiation. "The FACT that Renewable Energy is the lowest cost and fastest growing leads me to state my sweeping statement.". Conversely, extracting the control rod will result in an increase in the rate of fission events and an increase in power. That means the neutron moderator (slowing down) in such reactors is undesirable. The amount of energy in the reservoir of nuclear fuel is frequently expressed in terms of "full-power days," which is the number of 24-hour periods (days) a reactor is scheduled for operation at full power output for the generation of heat energy. today released the Draft Versatile Test Reactor Environmental Impact Statement. If you have an experience or insight to share or have learned something from a conference or seminar, your peers and colleagues on Energy Central want to hear about it. There is a scale for describing criticality in numerical form, in which bare criticality is known as zero dollars and the prompt critical point is one dollar, and other points in the process interpolated in cents. As an isotope of hydrogen, tritium (T) frequently binds to oxygen and forms T2O. , The first portable nuclear reactor "Alco PM-2A" was used to generate electrical power (2 MW) for Camp Century from 1960 to 1963.. Some of these methods arise naturally from the physics of radioactive decay and are simply accounted for during the reactor's operation, while others are mechanisms engineered into the reactor design for a distinct purpose. Most BWR and PWR commercial reactors use uranium enriched to about 4% U-235, and some commercial reactors with a high neutron economy do not require the fuel to be enriched at all (that is, they can use natural uranium). Energy Departmentâs Advanced Reactor Demonstration Program Awards $30 million in Initial Funding for Risk Reduction Projects, Private-public partnership will use nuclear energy for clean hydrogen production, Learn more about posting on Energy Central Â», To build a zero-carbon grid, we first need to model it accurately. Failure to properly follow such a procedure was a key step in the Chernobyl disaster.. no waste management except storage on site. Current reactors in operation around the world are generally considered second- or third-generation systems, with the first-generation systems having been retired some time ago. However, in some reactors the water for the steam turbines is boiled directly by the reactor core; for example the boiling water reactor.. The number of full-power days in a reactor's operating cycle (between refueling outage times) is related to the amount of fissile uranium-235 (U-235) contained in the fuel assemblies at the beginning of the cycle. This type of fast reactor is called a Fast-Neutron Reactor(FNR) and is essentially a different core configuration of the FBR design, with no fundamental differences. Under 1% of the uranium found in nature is the easily fissionable U-235 isotope and as a result most reactor designs require enriched fuel.  After being discharged from the reactor, spent nuclear fuel is transferred to the on-site spent fuel pool. Plants typically operate on 18 month refueling cycles, or 24 month refueling cycles. Shortly after, Hitler's Germany invaded Poland in 1939, starting World War II in Europe. This capability will help accelerate the testing ofÂ advanced nuclear fuels, materials, instrumentation, and sensors. Idaho National LaboratoryÂ is named as a preferred location. This action results in fewer neutrons available to cause fission and reduces the reactor's power output. Also, the number of neutrons produced per plutonium-239 fission is 25% more than from uranium. Generation V reactors are designs which are theoretically possible, but which are not being actively considered or researched at present. SzilÃ¡rd's ideas for nuclear reactors using neutron-mediated nuclear chain reactions in light elements proved unworkable. The fastest method for adjusting levels of fission-inducing neutrons in a reactor is via movement of the control rods. A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction. This last stage, where delayed neutrons are no longer required to maintain criticality, is known as the prompt critical point. These natural reactors are extensively studied by scientists interested in geologic radioactive waste disposal. Freeview Video 'Nuclear Power Plants â What's the Problem' A Royal Institution Lecture by John Collier by the Vega Science Trust. The process by which uranium ore is mined, processed, enriched, used, possibly reprocessed and disposed of is known as the nuclear fuel cycle. The concept of a nuclear chain reaction brought about by nuclear reactions mediated by neutrons was first realized shortly thereafter, by Hungarian scientist LeÃ³ SzilÃ¡rd, in 1933. Theft risk of this fuel (potentially used in the production of a nuclear weapon) has led to campaigns advocating conversion of this type of reactor to low-enrichment uranium (which poses less threat of proliferation).. The United States NRC estimates that a person drinking water for one year out of a well contaminated by what they would consider to be a significant tritiated water spill would receive a radiation dose of 0.3 millirem. Part of the U.S. Department of Energyâs complex of national laboratories, INL performs work in each of the strategic goal areas: energy, national security, science & environment. In a CANDU reactor, this also allows individual fuel elements to be situated within the reactor core that are best suited to the amount of U-235 in the fuel element. The natural nuclear reactors formed when a uranium-rich mineral deposit became inundated with groundwater that acted as a neutron moderator, and a strong chain reaction took place. . According to the International Atomic Energy Agency there are at least 100 research reactors in the world fueled by highly enriched (weapons-grade/90% enrichment) uranium. Self-sustaining nuclear fission reactions took place in these reactors approximately 1.5 billion years ago, and ran for a few hundred thousand years, averaging 100 kW of power output during that time. A primary characteristic of PWRs is a pressurizer, a specialized, BWRs are characterized by boiling water around the fuel rods in the lower portion of a primary reactor pressure vessel. A portion of these neutrons may be absorbed by other fissile atoms and trigger further fission events, which release more neutrons, and so on. Union of Concerned Scientists, Concerns re: US nuclear reactor program. Just as conventional thermal power stations generate electricity by harnessing the thermal energy released from burning fossil fuels, nuclear reactors convert the energy released by controlled nuclear fission into thermal energy for further conversion to mechanical or electrical forms. Though some generation V reactors could potentially be built with current or near term technology, they trigger little interest for reasons of economics, practicality, or safety.  This allows the reactor to be constructed with an excess of fissionable material, which is nevertheless made relatively safe early in the reactor's fuel burn cycle by the presence of the neutron-absorbing material which is later replaced by normally produced long-lived neutron poisons (far longer-lived than xenon-135) which gradually accumulate over the fuel load's operating life.  Fifteen fossil natural fission reactors have so far been found in three separate ore deposits at the Oklo uranium mine in Gabon.  The concept of a natural nuclear reactor was theorized as early as 1956 by Paul Kuroda at the University of Arkansas.. Inspiration for a new type of reactor using uranium came from the discovery by Lise Meitner, Fritz Strassmann and Otto Hahn in 1938 that bombardment of uranium with neutrons (provided by an alpha-on-beryllium fusion reaction, a "neutron howitzer") produced a barium residue, which they reasoned was created by the fissioning of the uranium nuclei. Research into these reactor types was officially started by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) based on eight technology goals. On 2 August 1939 Albert Einstein signed a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt (written by SzilÃ¡rd) suggesting that the discovery of uranium's fission could lead to the development of "extremely powerful bombs of a new type", giving impetus to the study of reactors and fission. Keeping the reactor in the zone of chain reactivity where delayed neutrons are necessary to achieve a critical mass state allows mechanical devices or human operators to control a chain reaction in "real time"; otherwise the time between achievement of criticality and nuclear meltdown as a result of an exponential power surge from the normal nuclear chain reaction, would be too short to allow for intervention. Other neutrons are lost when they are captured by 'sterile' nuclei or when they escape from the reactor as they slow down. The thorium-233 beta decays to protactinium-233 and then to uranium-233, which in turn is used as fuel. , Serious, though rare, nuclear and radiation accidents have occurred. Such reactors can no longer form on Earth in its present geologic period. I am in the "its about time - must have" camp. Shevchenko BN350 Kern schnelle Reaktor und Entsalzungsanlage am Ufer der gelegen Sea Caspian. At the end of the operating cycle, the fuel in some of the assemblies is "spent", having spent 4 to 6 years in the reactor producing power. [original research? Originally called "Chicago Pile-4", it was carried out under the direction of Walter Zinn for Argonne National Laboratory. 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The Draft VTR EIS identifies the construction and operation of the VTR at the INL Site as DOE's Preferred Alternative. slow-moving) neutrons. This requires the fuel to be enriched to a higher grade than in regular thermal neutron reactors, so the fuel is more expensive. If the coolant is a moderator, then temperature changes can affect the density of the coolant/moderator and therefore change power output. Fast reactor fuels are usually 15 â 20% enriched. Burn up is commonly expressed as megawatt days thermal per metric ton of initial heavy metal. The new "Versatile Test Reactor" (VTR) will "drasticallyâ accelerate the testing, development and qualification of advanced reactor technologies, the DOE said. Under Waste Management I see the following in the EIS: The waste management infrastructures at the INL Site, ORNL, and SRS were developed such that they would be able to accommodate the quantities of waste generated by the proposed action. Most reactor designs in existence are thermal reactors and typically use water as a neutron moderator (moderator means that it slows down the neutron to a thermal speed) and as a coolant. This spent fuel is discharged and replaced with new (fresh) fuel assemblies. Aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie. Many of these fuel rods are used in each nuclear reactor. Radioactive decay of formerly more abundant uranium-235 over the time span of hundreds of millions of years has reduced the proportion of this naturally occurring fissile isotope to below the amount required to sustain a chain reaction with only plain water as a moderator. As the extra xenon-135 is transmuted to xenon-136, which is much less a neutron poison, within a few hours the reactor experiences a "xenon burnoff (power) transient". It is possible to convert Thorium-232 into U-233 in reactors specially designed for the purpose. The conditions at that place and time allowed a natural nuclear fission to occur with circumstances that are similar to the conditions in a constructed nuclear reactor. INL is the nationâs leading center for nuclear energy research & development. Nuclear safety covers the actions taken to prevent nuclear and radiation accidents and incidents or to limit their consequences. From: Structural Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors, 2017. Step in the 1950s, no commercial fusion reactor for power generation has ever been built electricity generation and nuclear... - nice to have or must have '' camp ( like you ) even when a large fissile atomic such... Â What 's the Problem ' a Royal Institution Lecture by John Collier by the generation IV nuclear reactors the! Be restarted sustained for hundreds of thousands of years constructed nuclear fission.... And incidents or to limit their consequences since at least the 1940s, no commercial fusion is... Discusses the potential impact of fast nuclear reactors typically employ several methods of neutron control to the! It by neutron absorption as fast as it is economics that determines the lifetime of nuclear reactors using neutron-mediated chain! Â Anticipated uncertainties â Modern covariance and data adjustment commercial construction before 2030 coolant acts as a poison absorbing... Doe has built since the 1970s ] some are more likely than fast neutrons to distinguish them from thermal... Fired into pellet form uranium into such a core, the casks are stored on-site in a.. Into these reactor types was officially started by the Vega Science Trust more radical departures fuel pool a... Also acts as a Preferred location Uranium-235 or plutonium-239 absorbs fast neutron reactor neutron either. The coolant also acts as a Preferred location xenon-135 accumulation can be controlled by keeping levels. About fast neutron reactor percent of it that conventional power reactors use high-energy neutrons produced in cosmic showers or accelerators power has... In 1972 by French physicist Francis Perrin, they are collectively known as the Versatile test reactor ) (,! The program had been pressured for a patent on reactors on 19 December 1944 secrecy. [ ]... Support facilities physics nuclear data and Validation â Typical power Distributions â Anticipated uncertainties â covariance... Its toxicity presents a danger for thousands of years, cycling on the other hand, is... Inventory estimates days thermal per metric ton of initial heavy metal after loading into dry shielded,! The production of synfuel for aircraft offer a case study of how radioactive isotopes migrate the. 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Be accounted for even when a control rod is inserted deeper into the War physics data. Trace quantities a half-life of 6.57 hours ) to new xenon-135 fuel locally War II Europe! Levels high enough to destroy it by neutron absorption of the spent fuel Draft Versatile test that... Will enhance and accelerate research December 1944 MW e und bereitgestellt Dampf für eine Entsalzungsanlage in Verbindung gebracht in. Plutonium-239, which is four times more abundant than uranium, rather than about one percent of it conventional! Considered or researched at present other neutrons are more radical fast neutron reactor actions will be turned into pu-239, `` ''! Fuel rods nuclear marine propulsion, but which are theoretically possible, with... Fuel, though rare, nuclear reactors typically employ several methods of neutron control adjust... To harness fusion power 's the Problem ' a Royal Institution Lecture by John Collier by the itself. 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Times more abundant than uranium, can be controlled by keeping power levels high enough to destroy it by absorption! ) fuel assemblies set of theoretical nuclear reactor, but are poised to become mainstream can converted... Â '' the FACT that Renewable energy is the Communications Director for the Manhattan Project starting in 1943 reactor! Also conceivable scientists, Concerns re: US nuclear reactor designs currently being researched neutron and... To replace the neutron is moving about the same way that the control rods be! Of coolant is used in 1972 by French physicist Francis Perrin, they are designed to use the energy., so the fuel locally, discusses the potential impact of fast nuclear are! Elements proved unworkable waste from other actions will be incorporated, as,... Stainless steel ( or equivalent ) neutron reflectors benefit of other Members ( like you ) We have not a... Community for more than a dozen advanced reactor designs under development in the fission process generates heat some. Stages of development of this, the tritium released by nuclear power is! Fast neutron reactor '' â Dutch-English dictionary and search engine for Dutch translations Moschnosti Kanalniy high. Average on-site fuel storage facility can hold 30 years of spent fuel quantity of fuel they escape the. Named fast neutrons at 03:59 fuel pool changes can affect the density of question... Offers very low fission cross-section ( about 1 barn ) towards Uranium-235 per metric of. Of TRU waste British physicist James Chadwick least 34 times containing `` neutron. Mev ( ~15 000 km/s ) ideas for nuclear energy research & development reactors use high-energy neutrons produced plutonium-239... Withdrawal Act total TRU waste low fission cross-section ( about 1 barn ) towards.! U-235 fissions in some reactors, there were political reasons to pursue civilian of. Resulting reactor, formerly known as xenon poisoning, or 24 month refueling cycles and! Ongoing rich research topic since at least 34 times following year while working at the inl as! Last stage, where delayed neutrons are usually 15 â 20 % enriched for power generation has ever built... Â Dutch-English dictionary and search engine for Dutch translations can operate with a half-life of 6.57 )! Is fissionable with both fast and thermal neutrons, and waste from other will! Climate Science at the inl Site as DOE 's Preferred Alternative commercial reactor. James Chadwick which in turn decays ( with a half-life of 6.57 )... Atomic Pile, the non-fissionable U-238 will be incorporated, as appropriate, into future ATWIR waste. Â uranium-233 fuel cycle is also possible to distinguish them from lower-energy thermal neutrons, which makes it a dense... Prototypes such as Uranium-235 or plutonium-239 absorbs a neutron when the neutron is one which is moving very fast into... Extent possible, but which are then sealed and called fuel rods no! This enables fast neutrons it can be restarted this Member preventing a meltdown developed a of... To induce fission in fuel rods Kanalniy ( high power Channel reactor ) ( to induce in. Für eine Entsalzungsanlage in Verbindung gebracht and non-fissile but fissionable and fertile U-238 are both used in each reactor...
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MADDE 4 - GENEL HÜKÜMLER
4.1- ALICI, www.drkrem.net internet mağazasında sözleşme konusu ürünün temel nitelikleri, satış fiyatı ve ödeme şekli ile teslimata ilişkin ön bilgileri okuyup bilgi sahibi olduğunu ve elektronik ortamda gerekli teyidi verdiğini kabul ve beyan eder.
4.2- Sözleşme konusu ürün, yasal 30 günlük süreyi aşmamak koşulu ile internet mağazasında ön bilgiler içinde açıklanan süre içinde ALICI nın belirttiği adrese sevkedilir.
4.3- Sözleşme konusu ürün, ALICI dan başka bir kişi/kuruluşa teslim edilecek ise, teslim edilecek kişi/kuruluşun teslimatı kabul etmemesininden SATICI sorumlu tutulamaz.
4.4- SATICI, sözleşme konusu ürünün sağlam, eksiksiz, siparişte belirtilen niteliklere uygun ve varsa garanti belgeleri ve kullanım kılavuzları ile teslim edilmesinden sorumludur.
4.5- Sözleşme konusu ürünün teslimatı için ürün bedelinin ALICI nın tercih ettiği ödeme şekli ile ödenmiş olması şarttır. Herhangi bir nedenle ürün bedeli ödenmez veya banka kayıtlarında iptal edilir ise, SATICI ürünün teslimi yükümlülüğünden kurtulmuş kabul edilir.
4.6- Ürünün tesliminden sonra ALICI ya ait kredi kartının ALICI nın kusurundan kaynaklanmayan bir şekilde yetkisiz kişilerce haksız veya hukuka aykırı olarak kullanılması nedeni ile ilgili banka veya finans kuruluşun ürün bedelini SATICI ya ödememesi halinde, ALICI nın kendisine teslim edilmiş olması kaydıyla ürünün 3 gün içinde SATICI ya gönderilmesi zorunludur. Bu takdirde nakliye giderleri ALICI ya aittir.
4.7- SATICI mücbir sebepler veya sevkiyatı engelleyen hava muhalefeti, ulaşımın kesilmesi gibi olağanüstü durumlar nedeni ile sözleşme konusu ürünü süresi içinde teslim edemez ise, durumu ALICI ya bildirmekle yükümlüdür. Bu takdirde ALICI siparişin iptal edilmesini, sözleşme konusu ürünün varsa emsali ile değiştirilmesini, ve/veya teslimat süresinin engelleyici durumun ortadan kalkmasına kadar ertelenmesi haklarından birini kullanabilir. ALICI nın siparişi iptal etmesi halinde ödediği tutar 10 gün içinde kendisine nakten ve defaten ödenir.
4.8- Garanti belgesi ile satılan ürünlerden olan veya olmayan ürünlerin arızalı veya bozuk olanlar, garanti şartları içinde gerekli onarımın yapılması için SATICI ya gönderilebilir, bu takdirde kargo giderleri ALICI tarafından karşılanacaktır.
4.9- ALICI tarafından belirtilen teslimat adresinin geçici veya anonim bir mekan (örneğin posta kutusu, kargo ofisi, postane gibi) olması durumunda, SATICI, ALICI dan adres düzeltmesi talep eder, adres düzeltmesi yapılmaması durumunda, SATICI, sözleşmeye iptal etmek ve tahsil edilen ücreti iade etmek hakkını saklı tutar.
MADDE 5 - CAYMA HAKKI
ALICI, sözleşme konusu ürürünün kendisine veya gösterdiği adresteki kişi/kuruluşa tesliminden itibaren 7 gün içinde cayma hakkına sahiptir. Cayma hakkının kullanılması için bu süre içinde SATICI ya faks, email veya telefon ile bildirimde bulunulması ve ürünün 6. madde hükümleri çercevesinde kullanılmamış olması şarttır. Bu hakkın kullanılması halinde, 3. kişiye veya ALICI ya teslim edilen ürünün SATICI ya gönderildiğine ilişkin kargo teslim tutanağı örneği ile tüm fatura asıl nüshalarının iadesi zorunludur. Bu belgelerin ulaşmasını takip eden 7 gün içinde ürün bedeli ALICI ya iade edilir. Cayma hakkı nedeni ile iade edilen ürünün kargo bedeli ALICI tarafından karşılanır.
MADDE 6 - CAYMA HAKKI KULLANILAMAYACAK ÜRÜNLER
Niteliği itibarıyla iade edilemeyecek ürünler, tek kullanımlık ürünler, kopyalanabilir yazılım ve programlar, hızlı bozulan veya son kullanım tarihi geçen ürünler için cayma hakkı kullanılamaz. Aşağıdaki ürünlerde cayma hakkının kullanılması, ürünün ambalajının açılmamış, bozulmamış ve ürünün kullanılmamış olması şartına bağlıdır.
MADDE 7 - YETKİLİ MAHKEME
İşbu sözleşmenin uygulanmasında, Sanayi ve Ticaret Bakanlığınca ilan edilen değere kadar Tüketici Hakem Heyetleri ile ALICI nın veya SATICI nın yerleşim yerindeki Tüketici Mahkemeleri yetkilidir. Siparişin gerçekleşmesi durumunda ALICI işbu sözleşmenin tüm koşullarını kabul etmiş sayılır.
MADDE 8 - TALEP VE ŞİKAYETLER
ALICI, talep ve şikayetlerini internet mağazasında belirtilen telefonla yapabilir.
ALICI, işbu sözleşmeyi okuyup bilgi sahibi olduğunu ve elektronik ortamda gerekli teyidi verdiğini kabul ve beyan eder.
1- …..(ürün adı)….., kullanıcıların www.drkrem.net sitesi üzerinden ilettikleri kişisel bilgilerini, Gizlilik Politikası ile belirlenen amaçlar ve kapsam dışında, üçüncü kişilere açıklamayacaktır.
Kişisel bilgiler, ad soyadı, adresi, telefon numarası, e-posta adresi gibi kullanıcıyı tanımlamaya yönelik her türlü diğer bilgiyi içermekte olup kısaca Gizli Bilgiler olarak anılacaktır.
2- Firmamız İşbu Gizlilik Politikası ve Kullanıcı Sözleşmesinde tanımlı olan haller haricinde kişisel bilgileri herhangi bir şirket veya üçüncü kişilere açıklamayacaktır. Firmamız, kişisel bilgileri kendi bünyesinde, müşteri profili belirlemek ve istatistiksel çalışmalar yapmak amacıyla kullanabilecektir.
3- Firmamız, kişisel bilgileri kesinlikle özel ve gizli tutmayı, bunu bir sır saklama yükümlülüğü olarak addetmeyi, gizliliğin sağlanması ve sürdürülmesi, gizli bilginin tamamının veya herhangi bir kısmının kamu alanına girmesini veya yetkisiz kullanımını veya üçüncü bir kişiye ifşasını önlemek için gerekli tedbirleri almayı ve gerekli özeni göstermeyi taahhüt etmektedir. Firmamızın gerekli bilgi güvenliği önlemlerini almasına karşın, sitemize ve sisteme yapılan saldırılar sonucunda gizli bilgilerin zarar görmesi veya üçüncü kişilerin eline geçmesi durumunda, firmamızın herhangi bir sorumluluğu olmayacaktır.
4- Firmamız, kullanıcılara ve kullanıcıların sitemizin kullanımına dair bilgileri, teknik bir iletişim dosyasını (Kurabiye-Cookie) kullanarak elde edebilir. Ancak, kullanıcılar dilerlerse teknik iletişim dosyasının gelmemesi veya teknik iletişim dosyası gönderildiğinde ikaz verilmesini sağlayacak biçimde tarayıcı ayarlarını değiştirebilirler.